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Category: In Vitro Fertilization

Sclerotherapy for Treatment of Endometriomas

In the era of assisted reproductive technology (ART), there are two reasons for the treatment of endometriosis. The first is to alleviate symptoms of pain. The second is in preparation for In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). Conventional surgical treatment of ovarian endometriosis involves either an abdominal incision or laparoscopic drainage of the cyst contents with subsequent […]

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Dr. Bayrak Announces Milestone Birth in Southern California from Genetically Tested Frozen Egg

I am excited to announce the birth of the first baby in Southern California early this week as a result of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) using a genetically tested and frozen egg by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) (See the announcement at After treating the first CGH cases in Southern California with IVF for infertility, I […]

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IVF for Patients Out of State or Country

We frequently treat patients who are either out of state or country at our IVF centers. We are very accustomed to working closely with these couples/patients so that in spite of distance, we are able to provide them with optimal treatment. We achieve this through a system that involves working closely with the couple/patient’s local […]

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Update on MTHFR, Thrombophilias & IVF

There has been confusion over the years about testing for clotting disorders in infertility patients, especially those undergoing IVF treatment. Routine testing for these disorders is not recommended as a part of the initial work up for infertility and prior to or during pregnancy. Unfortunately, there have been overutilization and overinterpretation of these tests (thrombophilia […]

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Mini IVF or Micro IVF?

Mini IVF refers to the use of non-injectible medications (mostly clomid) to mature 1-2 eggs for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Micro IVF is different from mini IVF because it involves the use of injectible FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) to induce mature and multiple eggs (5 eggs on average). Although they have been used interchangeably, mini […]

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Embryo Transfer

Embryo transfer (ET) is the last, but one of the most important steps of In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF). ET is performed 3 or 5 days following the day of egg retrieval. On the first day after egg retrieval (Day 1), fertilization is confirmed under the microscope by the presence of “two pronuclei” (2-PN). Then, embryos are […]

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Blastocyst (Day 5) Transfer

Over the years, blastocyst transfer (BT) or Day 5 transfer has become increasing prevalent among IVF programs and transfer of good quality blastocysts is associated with high rate of implantation/pregnancy and low rate of multiple pregnancy. Using advanced reproductive technologies (ART), multiple mature eggs can now be recovered from a woman in a single cycle. […]

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Reproductive Age and Fertility Outcome

Women are born with a finite number of eggs (1-2 million in both ovaries at birth) and at the time of puberty the total number decreases to approximately 500,000. At age 37, there are approximately 25,000 eggs left in the ovaries and less than 500 at the time of menopause. A monthly process of using […]

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Adenomyosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in the myometrium (muscle layer) of the uterus. It can be localized or diffuse (involving most of the uterus) and more commonly observed in parous women between the ages of 35-50. The exact cause of adenomyosis is unknown and may resemble fibroids on ultrasound, […]

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