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Embryo Transfer

Embryo transfer (ET) is the last, but one of the most important steps of In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF). ET is performed 3 or 5 days following the day of egg retrieval. On the first day after egg retrieval (Day 1), fertilization is confirmed under the microscope by the presence of “two pronuclei” (2-PN). Then, embryos are […]

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The Embryo Marker Tests, CGH and IVF

Embryo marker tests have been developed over the years in IVF practices to identify the best embryos for transfer into the uterus, but no test has been found to be 100% reliable. Conventional approach in selecting the better quality embryos still relies on the appearance of the embryos under the microscope by paying attention to […]

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Cervical Incompetence

The diagnosis of cervical incompetence is usually suspected on the basis of the following history: Second trimester miscarriage or premature birth, in which both bleeding and painful contractions are minimal No prior warning symptoms or signs in most cases Where the bulging membranes often breaks followed by a sudden gush of water per vagina that […]

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Blastocyst (Day 5) Transfer

Over the years, blastocyst transfer (BT) or Day 5 transfer has become increasing prevalent among IVF programs and transfer of good quality blastocysts is associated with high rate of implantation/pregnancy and low rate of multiple pregnancy. Using advanced reproductive technologies (ART), multiple mature eggs can now be recovered from a woman in a single cycle. […]

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Reproductive Age and Fertility Outcome

Women are born with a finite number of eggs (1-2 million in both ovaries at birth) and at the time of puberty the total number decreases to approximately 500,000. At age 37, there are approximately 25,000 eggs left in the ovaries and less than 500 at the time of menopause. A monthly process of using […]

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An Alternative IVF Protocol: The GnRH Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol

The agonist antagonist conversion protocol refers to a switch in the pituitary suppression drugs during an IVF cycle. We now know that some form of pituitary blockade, either in the form of a GnRH agonist (e.g. Lupron, Buserelin, Nafarelin, and Synarel) or a GnRH antagonist (e.g. Cetrorelix, and Ganirelix) is an essential component in ovarian […]

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H1N1 (Swine) Flu, Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

H1N1 flu (a.k.a. swine flu) has affected many pregnant and non-pregnant women and the management of such cases including vaccination has created concerns and confusion in the general population. Swine flu is most commonly caused by swine influenza virus A and one of its subtypes called H1N1. It is relatively common in pigs and was […]

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Embryo Transfer on Day 3 Versus Day 5

The concept of blastocyst transfer (BT) is not new to the field of Assisted Reproduction. There have been reports of BT pregnancies in humans as early as 1990, and even earlier in animals. However, the ability to consistently produce a high percentage of blastocysts from cultured embryos is a relatively recent development. The freshly fertilized […]

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Fertility Preservation for Cancer Patients

Patients diagnosed with cancer are typically planned to undergo surgery, chemotherapy or radiation depending on the location and the type of the cancer. In some cases, a combination of these treatment options may be applicable during a time period and in most cases urgent treatment is necessary. Therefore, an immediate consultation with a fertility specialist […]

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Abnormal Number of Chromosomes (Aneuploidy)

Each cell in the body should have 46 chromosomes including the cells in a developing embryo. 23 chromosomes are present in a chromosomally normal egg and the normal sperm brings 23 additional chromosomes to make 46 in total. In cases of poor sperm or poor egg quality, number of chromosomes in each cell of the […]

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